The construction of famous architectures in Maharashtra

Protrainy | Aug. 4, 2023, 12:35 p.m.

Maharashtra's Famous caves and cliffs Ajanta and Elora. Buddhist and Hindu cave temples at Ellora and the Ajanta Caves contain fine artistic design elements and India's oldest wall paintings can be seen here. Maharashtra's famous Rock-cut architecture took turn with the Buddhist reign and remarkable Buddhist monuments were produced in areas such as Bihar in the east and Maharashtra in the west. Natural grottos and caves in the hillside were excavated by the Buddhist monks and turned into glorious prayer halls and monasteries.Ranging from tiny monastic cells to colossal, elaborately carved temples, they are remarkable for having been hewn by hand from solid rock. Their 3rd century BC origins seem to have been as temporary shelters for Buddhist monks when heavy monsoon rains made their normal itinerant lifestyle impossible. During the early medieval period, the Maharashtrian region's architecture was largely based on a combination of old and new Nagara styles. Bhimashankar temple is considered to be a unique mix of these two Nagara styles. During the late period, Hemadri a court polymath of Yadavas of Deogiri used his unique combinational Nagara style to create many temples, which were again rebuilt due to numerous Islamic clashes and their penchant for destroying Hindu places of worship. Foremost among these are Trayambakeshwar Temple, Tulja Bhavani temple, Ghrishneshwar temple among others. Some structures at the Daulatabad Fort is the earliest examples of Indo-Islamic architecture in Maharashtra.The medieval Ahmednagar Sultanate built the Ahmednagar Fort, Tomb of Salabat Khan II and Bagh Rauza in Ahmednagar. Their style is similar to that of the other Deccan Sultanates.The best example of Mughal architecture in Maharashtra is Bibi ka Maqbara built by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, which is a replica of the Taj Mahal.The Maratha Empire ruled between the 17th and 19th centuries. They were constantly at war against the Mughal Empire. Therefore, several fortifications were built throughout the area, including Shaniwar Wada, Pratapgad, Raigad and Mangad. Shivaji built the Lal Mahal in Pune. During Confederacy era, many of the popular temples were built/revived all over Maharashtra. They reflect a peculiar architectural style regarded as Maratha Architecture.During Portuguese rule in Mumbai, several fortifications, including the Madh Fort and Castella de Aguada were built in the city.During the British colonial era, European styles became prevalent, especially in Mumbai(Bombay at that time). The most significant examples are the two World Heritage sites of Mumbai ― Chhatrappati Shivaji terminus (designed by Frederick William Stevens in the gothic revival style), and the Victorian and Art Deco ensemble of Mumbai (consisting of Bombay High Court, Rajabai Clock Tower and University of Mumbai).Other examples include and Municipal Corporation Building and Asiatic Society in Mumbai and Fergusson College of Pune.A new architectural style known as the Indo-Saracenic Revival Architecture developed, a combination of British and Indian styles. The best examples of this style are Gateway of India, Taj Mahal Hotel, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya(formerly Prince of Wales Museum) in Mumbai. Modern skyscrapers built in the international style such as The Imperial, Antilia, and Palais Royale form the skyline of Mumbai.Bibi Ka Maqbara at Aurangabad, a replica of the Taj Mahal built during the reign of Aurangzeb. It was commissioned by his son Azam Shah.The Fort campus of the University of Mumbai was established in 1857.The present building of the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was designed by Frederick William Stevens in the Victorian Gothic style and completed in 1888.Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs. Intensely laborious when using ancient tools and methods, rock-cut architecture was presumably combined with quarrying the rock for use elsewhere. Though, in India and China, the terms cave and cavern are often applied to this form of man-made architecture, caves and caverns that began in natural form are not considered to be rock-cut architecture even if extensively modified.[1] Although rock-cut structures differ from traditionally built structures in many ways, many rock-cut structures are made to replicate the facade or interior of traditional architectural forms. Interiors were usually carved out by starting at the roof of the planned space and then working downward. This technique prevents stones falling on workers below. The three main uses of rock-cut architecture were temples (like those in India), tombs, and cave dwellings (like those in Cappadocia).The Kailasha or Kailashanatha temple is the largest of the rock-cut Hindu temples at the Ellora Caves near Sambhaji Nagar in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra, India. A megalith carved from a rock cliff face, it is considered as one of the most remarkable cave temples in the world because of its size, architecture and sculptural treatment, and "the climax of the rock-cut phase of Indian architecture".The top of the superstructure over the sanctuary is 32.6 metres (107 ft) above the level of the court below,[3] although the rock face slopes downwards from the rear of the temple to the front. Archaeologists believe it is made from a single rock.The Ajanta Caves are 29 rock-cut Buddhist cave monuments dating from the second century BCE to about 480 CE in the Aurangabad District of Maharashtra state in India.Ajanta Caves are a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Universally regarded as masterpieces of Buddhist religious art, the caves include paintings and rock-cut sculptures described as among the finest surviving examples of ancient Indian art, particularly expressive paintings that present emotions through gesture, pose and form.The Ajanta Caves constitute ancient monasteries (Chaityas) and worship-halls (Viharas) of different Buddhist traditions carved into a 75-metre (246 ft) wall of rock.The caves also present paintings depicting the past lives and rebirths of the Buddha, pictorial tales from Aryasura's Jatakamala, and rock-cut sculptures of Buddhist deities.Textual records suggest that these caves served as a monsoon retreat for monks, as well as a resting site for merchants and pilgrims in ancient India.While vivid colours and mural wall painting were abundant in Indian history as evidenced by historical records, Caves 16, 17, 1 and 2 of Ajanta form the largest corpus of surviving ancient Indian wall-painting.Cave 1 was built on the eastern end of the horseshoe-shaped scarp and is now the first cave the visitor encounters. This cave, when first made, would have been in a less prominent position, right at the end of the row. According to Spink, it is one of the last caves to have been excavated, when the best sites had been taken, and was never fully inaugurated for worship by the dedication of the Buddha image in the central shrine. This is shown by the absence of sooty deposits from butter lamps on the base of the shrine image, and the lack of damage to the paintings that would have happened if the garland-hooks around the shrine had been in use for any period of time. Spink states that the Emperor Harishena was the benefactor of the work, and this is reflected in the emphasis on imagery of royalty in the cave, with those Jataka tales being selected that tell of those previous lives of the Buddha in which he was royal.